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March 2003



The Honey badger: Conserving "the most fearless animal in the world"

Colleen & Keith Begg

A honey badgerIn South Africa, you can now buy "honey badger-friendly" honey. But, one has to ask, why anyone would want to be friendly to an animal labeled "the meanest animal in the world". This is an animal that has an armoured personnel carrier named after it in the South African Defense Force, due to its tenacity and has attracted other superlatives in the popular press including "most fearless animal in the world' in the 2002 edition of the Guinness Book of Records and "pound for pound the most powerful creature in Africa''. Yet what is the truth behind this creature with the bold black & white markings and the larger than life reputation? And what is all the fuss about?

Eight years ago, little was known about the honey badger or ratel despite its extensive historical distribution extending through Sub-Saharan Africa, from the Cape of Good Hope South Africa to southern Morocco and south western Algeria, and outside of Africa through Arabia, Iran and western Asia to Turkmenistan and the Indian peninsula. We knew that they were listed as Vulnerable (reassessed as Near Threatened in 2002) in the South African Red Data Book, near threatened in Morocco, Endangered in Niger and protected in Israel. We also knew that they were being directly persecuted by beekeepers, killed for traditional medicine and indirectly persecuted by traps and poison put out for other similarly sized problem animals such as black-backed jackal and caracal. Yet we didn't know the basics; how many young did they have, what was their social organisation, how much space did they need, or even how did they communicate. Previous short-term studies and stomach analysis suggested that they were generalist carnivores but did they really castrate large prey items leaving them to bleed to death, as suggested by Stevenson-Hamilton in 1947?

Knowledge of a species' behaviour is the key to successful conservation efforts and it was obvious that an in-depth study of honey badgers was both overdue and necessary to collect fundamental biological information. So began a four-year study of honey badgers in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, South Africa between 1996 to 1999, supported by the Carnivore Conservation Group of the Endangered Wildlife Trust. The results were revealing and in some cases, surprising.

Meet the honey badger

Far from being the "meanest animal in the world", visual observations revealed a medium sized carnivore (6 -12 kg) that avoids confrontation with its main predators, leopard and lion. When challenged at close quarters, the relatively slow moving honey badger does put up a formidable display which includes the release of a strong scent from their anal scent glands, a loud "rattling- roar" and rushing movements towards the potential enemy whatever its size. But invincible, with no natural enemies? Certainly not. Of particular conservation concern was their slow reproductive turnover with only a single cub born every 16-18 months, relatively high adult and cub mortality with only half the cubs reaching independence and extremely large home ranges of both males (638 square kilometres) and females (138 square kilometers). These ranges suggest that most protected areas may be too small to protect viable populations of honey badgers.

Far from only eating honey as their name suggests, honey badgers are generalist carnivores with more than 65 different prey items, ranging in size from insect larvae to springhares and the young of Black-backed jackal and Cape Fox, on the menu in the Kgalagadi. Their staple diet comprises rodents and snakes including the highly venomous Cape cobra and pufadder. While honey and bee brood were eaten when available, they were not a necessary part of the diet and there was certainly no evidence of honey badgers castrating their prey. More myths dispelled.


But what about the "Badger-Friendly Initiative"? Once the field study was completed our attentions turned to the conflict between commercial beekeepers and honey badgers outside of protected areas, which was particularly prevalent in South Africa. Aside from man, honey badgers are the most significant mammalian predators of bees and they can and do cause substantial losses to beekeepers. This is not a new problem, as throughout Africa, where badgers still occur, traditional beekeepers hang their bark hives from trees to minimize damage from badgers as they have done for generations. While traditional beekeepers are remarkably fatalistic about the 2 -7 % of hives they still lose to badgers each season, commercial beekeepers are less able to support this level of loss. 

A survey of the beekeeper -badger conflict in Western Cape Province in South Africa, completed in 2001 by K. Begg, revealed that honey badgers were causing direct losses exceeding R500 000 ($62 500) annually in this area alone. More than 80 % of beekeepers surveyed revealed that they had experienced problems from badgers and more than half admitted to killing them, with steel jawed leg hold traps and in same cases poison the method of choice. Predictably, hives were most frequently damaged by badgers in areas where they are placed on the ground in indigenous vegetation that supports both good bee forage (flowering plants) and healthy populations of badgers.

The honey badgers specially protected status was hardly protecting them, and their conservation was being seriously complicated by their reputation as vicious, tenacious creatures with no natural enemies, that existed almost solely on honey and bee brood. Something obviously needed to be done, but the challenge was how to conserve this seldom seen carnivore outside of protected areas when it has little to no direct economic value or eco-tourism potential, is difficult to census and is a serious pest. Fortunately the survey also revealed some surprising good news.

The badger-friendly initiative

Badger friendly honeyMany enterprising beekeepers have developed cost effective and practical hive protection methods that minimize and in many cases prevent damage by honey badgers. These are solutions provided by beekeepers for beekeepers, and in some cases, they have been used for more than 50 years. With an average cost of only R37 per hive as an initial outlay, hive protection saves a beekeeper hundreds of thousands of rand in potential honey badger damage. While most beekeepers prefer to raise their hives on stands or trestles at least a metre off the ground to keep them out of reach of the badgers, they can also be secured on the ground with metal straps, pallets or wire. Given these hive protection methods, it is clear that trapping is an ineffectual and expensive means of solving the problem and has no rational justification whether economic or ethical. To ensure effective conservation of honey badger it is crucial that more beekeepers adopt these "badger-friendly" practices as part and parcel of their profession, particulary when their hives are placed in indigenous vegetation and on the borders of protected areas.

To this end the Badger-Friendly Initiative, a three-year programme, was initiated in May 2002, funded by The Green Trust, an associated trust of WWF-SA made possible by Nedbank Green, the Carnivore Conservation Group of the Endangered Wildlife Trust and Leisure Kitchens. Currently, beekeeping organizations and conservation agencies and NGOs, together with retailers and the public are working together to create a win / win solution to help both beekeepers and honey badgers. Joan Isham has been appointed as a full time extension officer and coordinator of the initiative, which aims to inform and assist beekeepers on a one-to one basis with hive protection methods, to educate the public about honey badgers and to provide positive incentives for badger-friendly beekeeping.

Following local media coverage of the badger-beekeeper conflict in South Africa, there was an overwhelming response from consumers asking how they could tell which honey was from badger-friendly beekeepers. As a response, a nationally recognized sticker and accreditation system was developed in cooperation with the bee industry. Beekeepers that sign a public declaration declaring their subscription to environmentally friendly and law-abiding beekeeping (including hive protection in risk areas) are allowed to display the "badger-friendly logo on their products. A designated extension officer audits these beekeepers to ensure compliance with badger-friendly practices. Through media and consumer pressure, two major retailers have already bought into the initiative and are insisting that their honey suppliers are "badger-friendly". One beekeeping couple says their sales have increased since the public has become more aware of the role in honey badger conservation by only buying honey clearly displaying the badger-friendly logo. This is the incentive.

It is still early days, but this has the potential of being a "good news story" of a carnivore-farmer conflict; one that can be solved to the benefit of both parties. It provides a good example of how with cooperative effort from all sides, including retailers and consumers, industry practices can be changed to promote conservation. Of course, South Africa forms only a small part of the range of honey badgers, but it is hoped that this might inspire similar initiatives in other countries. If nothing else, a better understanding of the fascinating creature behind the myth will help their conservation.

More information

Hear more about the fascinating world of the honeybadger at the Sasol Scifest in Dr Colleen Begg's lecture: The honey badger - challenges to conserving the 'most fearless animal in the world'. See the Sasol Scifest website for more information on other lectures, exhibitions and events at this week-long science festival.

For more information about honey badgers and/or the badger-friendly initiative see our website, or contact Joan Isham ( or Keith & Colleen Begg (

The badger friendly initiative thanks the following organizations for their ongoing support:
Carnivore Conservation Group of the Endangered Wildlife Trust; The Green
Trust; The Wildlife & Environment Society of South Africa; Leisure Kitchens;
South African Bee Industry Executive; Western Cape Nature Conservation
Board; South African National Parks; The De Wildt Cheetah & Wildlife Trust;
Agricultural Research Council, PPRI; South African Federation of Bee-Farmer
's Associations; Conservation Systems

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